Minggu, 17 Juli 2011

Rhino Species in the World Very Endangered

scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: mammals
Infraclass: Eutheria
Order: Perissodactyla
Suborder: Ceratomorpha
Superfamily: Rhinocerotoidea
Family: Rhinocerotidae

Characteristic of the rhino family is characterized by large body size (one of the largest remaining megafauna), with weight reaching one ton or heavier; herbivores, and have a thick protective skin, 1.5 to 5 cm, and is formed from layers of collagen positioned in a lattice structure; relatively small brains for mammals this size (400-600 g), and large horns. They generally eat like a grown-perissodactyls tumbuhan.Tidak other African species of rhinoceros lack teeth at the front of their mouths, relying only on their strong teeth premolars and molars for grinding plant food.

Rhino killed by humans for their horns, which are bought and sold on the black market, and is used by some cultures for medicinal purposes. Horn is made of keratin, the same type of protein that form hair and nails. Both African species and the Sumatran rhino has two horns, while India and Java, Rhino has a single horn.

IUCN Red List identifies three species of rhinoceros in the world "critically endangered".

Rhino Species

The Javan rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sondaicus) is one of the rarest large mammals and most endangered anywhere in the world. Habitat in lowland tropical rain forest, tall grass and reed beds are abundant with large flood plains and a mud wallow. Although widespread throughout Asia, in the 1930s Java rhino to extinction in India, Burma, Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra. In 2009, there were only 40 of them left in Ujung Kulon, Banten, Indonesia.

Javan Rhino has only one horn. Hairy, gray leather misty fall into folds into the shoulder, back, and buttocks to give the appearance of withdrawal have armored skin .. Javan rhinoceros, the body length reaches up to 3.1 to 3.2 m (10-10 feet), including the head and height of 1.5 to 1.7 m (4 ft 10 in.-5 ft 7 in) high.

Sumatran rhino
Rhino Species

The Sumatran rhino (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) is the smallest species of rhinoceros that still exist, and have a dense fur, which allows it to survive at very high altitude in Kalimantan and Sumatra. Because of habitat loss and poaching, numbers have decreased and this is one of the rarest mammals in the world. Currently an estimated 275 Sumatran rhino tail spread in southeast Asia and also in Way Kambas, Sumatra.

Usually the adult Sumatran rhino stands about 130 cm (51 in) tall at the shoulder, a body length of 240-315 cm (94-124 in) and weighs approximately 700 kg (1,500 lb). Like the African species, they have two horns, which are the next largest (25-79 cm) and a second small, usually less than 10 cm. Males have much larger horns than females. Body and has short legs are his trademark.

Sumatran Rhino Sanctuary, Indonesia
Sumatran Rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) is the most endangered of the five species of rhinoceros that lived. No more than 200individuals survive in small, highly fragmented populations in Indonesia and Malaysia, and this species suffered a rapid population decline due to poaching and habitat loss. Because of the challenges and uncertainties of species threatened with extinction, then in 1984 the World Conservation Union's Asian Rhino Specialist Group recommends to develop a breeding program as part of a management strategy to a larger population Sumatran rhino.

Rhino experts agree that successful reproduction would require a fairly natural conditions and special handling. International Rhino Foundation also helped to build and operate conservation in Sumatran Rhino Sanctuary (SRS) in Way Kambas National Park, Sumatra, Indonesia. SRS covers 100 hectares (247 acres) for propagation, research and education, and received the first rhino in 1998. The sanctuary is now home to five rhinos - two males and three women - who are part of the research program and intensively managed breeding aimed at increasing the population of Sumatran rhinos in the wild. In a special place, rhinos are in large, open area where they can experience a natural rain forest habitat while still receiving state-of-the-art animal care and nutrition.

The purpose of the Sumatran Rhino Sanctuary is to preserve a small population of Sumatran rhinos to research and develop a successful breeding program that can generate a new animal to help ensure the survival of these species are endangered in the wild.

Rhinos have existed on Earth for more than 50 million years old and has a glorious history. In the past, the rhino is much more diverse and widespread (occurring in North America and Europe and in Africa and Asia).

Today, only five species of rhinos survive. The five species are subdivided into 11 subspecies were identified. All rhinos are under threat, and all but one species on the verge of, extinction. Without serious action, some rhinos could be extinct in the wild within the next 10-20 years. Only about 25,000 of the extraordinary creatures survive in the wild with another 1250 in captivity. Of these rhinos, more than two-thirds are white rhinoceros. There are only about 7300 of four other species combined. The best estimate of current population is:

White rhinoceros: 18.000
Black Rhino: 4240
Greater One-horned rhino: 2.800 to 2.850
Sumatran rhinoceros: 200
Javan Rhino: 40-50

Rhino Species

YABI and IRF, the agency that handles rhino conservation in Indonesia.
YABI dedicated to the conservation of rhinos in Indonesia is the Javan rhino (Rhinoceros sondaicus, Desmarest) and Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) YABI has been established and inaugurated on December 28, 2006 based on Notarial Deed No. 34 and authorized by the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights on 20 March 2007.

YABI was merged from three former rhino conservation organizations, they Yayasan Mitra Rhino (YMR), Sumatran Rhino Sanctuary Foundation (YSRS), and the Indonesian Rhino Conservation Program (IPPA).
Javan Rhino can live for 30-45 years in the wild. they live in lowland rain forest and wet meadows. java rhino usually avoid humans, but will attack humans if they feel harassed. Researchers find it difficult to observe directly because of their rarity and the danger of disturbing these species. Researchers used a camera and a fecal samples java Rhino to measure the health and behavior.
We as nation's next generation should be concerned about this. rhino is one of our nation's wealth that has been endangered. So far, only a few people who care about this issue. Even the government does not intervene for rhino conservation in Indonesia. Funds for rhino conservation is still protected from foreign organizations such as the IRF (International Rhino Foundation).

Denial Denim, we are very worried about the decline in rhino appreciation by the younger generation. Therefore, the second session we deliberately raised the issue of this rare animal award for a better future. We work with YABI (Yayasan Badak Indonesia) as the party directly addressing the conservation of rhinos in Indonesia to work together and share many of their populations and their habitats.

You can donate directly to YABI via:
Yayasan Badak Indonesia. Bank Account :133-00-0545895-5 (USD) or 133-00-0545911-0 (U.S. $) Branch: Surya Kencana, Bogor.

Time to care about the population of rhinos in Indonesia and their habitats. We hope, destruction and poaching rhinos in Indonesia to continue to be minimized. Be wise to Indonesia who is better!

Source: from various sources and summarized by Denial Denim
Photo by: RHINO FOUNDATION Indonesia via Denial Denim

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